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editres - a dynamic resource editor for X Toolkit applications
editres [ - toolkitoption ... ]
Editres accepts all of the standard X Toolkit command line options (see X(1)). The order of the command line options is not important.

Editres is a tool that allows users and application developers to view the full widget hierarchy of any X Toolkit application that speaks the Editres protocol. In addition, editres will help the user construct resource specifications, allow the user to apply the resource to the application and view the results dynamically. Once the user is happy with a resource specification editres will append the resource string to the user's X Resources file.

Editres provides a window consisting of the following four areas:
Menu Bar
A set of popup menus that allow you full access to editres's features.
The panner allows a more intuitive way to scroll the application tree display.
Message Area
Displays information to the user about the action that editres expects of her.
Application Widget Tree
This area will be used to display the selected application's widget tree.
To begin an editres session select the Get Widget Tree menu item from the command menu. This will change the pointer cursor to cross hair. You should now select the application you wish look at by clicking on any of its windows. If this application understands the editres protocol then editres will display the application's widget tree in its tree window. If the application does not understand the editres protocol editres will inform you of this fact in the message area after a few seconds delay.
Once you have a widget tree you may now select any of the other menu options. The effect of each of these is described below.

Get Widget Tree
Allows the user to click on any application that speaks the editres protocol and receive its widget tree.
Refresh Current Widget Tree
Editres only knows about the widgets that exist at the present time. Many applications create and destroy widgets on the fly. Selecting this menu item will cause editres to ask the application to resend its widget tree, thus updating its information to the new state of the application.

For example, xman only creates the widgets for its topbox when it starts up. None of the widgets for the manual page window are created until the user actually clicks on the Manual Page button. If you retrieved xman's widget tree before the manual page is active, you may wish to refresh the widget tree after the manual page has been displayed. This will allow you to also edit the manual page's resources.

Dump Widget Tree to a File
For documenting applications it is often useful to be able to dump the entire application widget tree to an ASCII file. This file can then be included in the manual page. When this menu item is selected a popup dialog is activated. Type the name of the file in this dialog, and either select okay, or type a carriage-return. Editres will now dump the widget tree to this file. To cancel the file dialog, select the cancel button.
Show Resource Box
This command will popup a resource box for the current application. This resource box (described in detail below) will allow the user to see exactly which resources can be set for the widget that is currently selected in the widget tree display. Only one widget may be currently selected; if greater or fewer are selected editres will refuse to pop up the resource box and put an error message in the Message Area.
Set Resource
This command will popup a simple dialog box for setting an arbitrary resource on all selected widgets. You must type in the resource name, as well as the value. You can use the Tab key to switch between the resource name field the resource value field.
Exits editres.


The Tree menu contains several commands that allow operations to be performed on the widget tree.
Select Widget in Client
This menu item allows you to select any widget in the application; editres will then highlight the corresponding element the widget tree display. Once this menu item is selected the pointer cursor will again turn to a crosshair, and you must click any pointer button in the widget you wish to have displayed. Since some widgets are fully obscured by their children, it is not possible to get to every widget this way, but this mechanism does give very useful feedback between the elements in the widget tree and those in the actual application.
Select All
Unselect All
Invert All
These functions allow the user to select, unselect, or invert all widgets in the widget tree.
Select Children
Select Parents
These functions select the immediate parent or children of each of the currently selected widgets.
Select Descendants
Select Ancestors
These functions select all parents or children of each of the currently selected widgets. This is a recursive search.
Show Widget Names
Show Class Names
Show Widget Windows
When the tree widget is initially displayed the labels of each widget in the tree correspond to the widget names. These functions will cause the label of all widgets in the tree to be changed to show the class name, IDs, or window associated with each widget in the application. The widget IDs, and windows are shown as hex numbers.

In addition there are keyboard accelerators for each of the Tree operations. If the input focus is over an individual widget in the tree, then that operation will only effect that widget. If the input focus is in the Tree background it will have exactly the same effect as the corresponding menu item.

The translation entries shown may be applied to any widget in the application. If that widget is a child of the Tree widget, then it will only affect that widget, otherwise it will have the same effect as the commands in the tree menu.

Flash Active Widgets

This command is the inverse of the Select Widget in Client command, it will show the user each widget that is currently selected in the widget tree, by flashing the corresponding widget in the application numFlashes (three by default) times in the flashColor.
Key Option Translation Entry
space Unselect Select(nothing)
w Select Select(widget)
s Select Select(all)
i Invert Select(invert)
c Select Children Select(children)
d Select Descendants Select(descendants)
p Select Parent Select(parent)
a Select Ancestors Select(ancestors)
N Show Widget Names Relabel(name)
C Show Class Names Relabel(class)
I Show Widget IDs Relabel(id)
W Show Widget Windows Relabel(window)
T Toggle Widget/Class Name Relabel(toggle)
Clicking button 1 on a widget adds it to the set of selected widgets. Clicking button 2 on a widget deselects all other widgets and then selects just that widget. Clicking button 3 on a widget toggles its label between the widget's instance name the widget's class name.


The resource box contains five different areas. Each of the areas, as they appear on the screen, from top to bottom will be discussed.

The Resource Line
This area at the top of the resource box shows the current resource name exactly as it would appear if you were to save it to a file or apply it.

The Widget Names and Classes
This area allows you to select exactly which widgets this resource will apply to.
The area contains four lines. The first contains the name of the selected widget and all its ancestors, and the more restrictive dot (.) separator. The second line contains less specific the Class names of each widget, and well as the less restrictive star (*) separator. The third line contains a set of special buttons called Any Widget which will generalize this level to match any widget. The last line contains a set of special buttons called Any Widget Chain which will turn the single level into something that matches zero or more levels.
The initial state of this area is the most restrictive, using the resource names and the dot separator. By selecting the other buttons in this area you can ease the restrictions to allow more and more widgets to match the specification. The extreme case is to select all the Any Widget Chain buttons, which will match every widget in the application. As you select different buttons the tree display will update to show you exactly which widgets will be effected by the current resource specification.

Normal and Constraint Resources
The next area allows you to select the name of the normal or constraint resources you wish to set. Some widgets may not have constraint resources, so that area will not appear.

Resource Value
This next area allows you to enter the resource value. This value should be entered exactly as you would type a line into your resource file. Thus it should contain no unescaped new-lines. There are a few special character sequences for this file:
n - This will be replaced with a newline.
# # # - Where # is any octal digit. This will be replaced with a single byte that contains this sequence interpreted as an octal number. For example, a value containing a NULL byte can be stored by specifying 000.
< new-line > - This will compress to nothing.
- This will compress to a single backslash.
Command Area
This area contains several command buttons, described in this section.
Set Save File
This button allows the user to modify file that the resources will be saved to. This button will bring up a dialog box that will ask you for a filename; once the filename has been entered, either hit carriage-return or click on the okay button. To pop down the dialog box without changing the save file, click the cancel button.
This button will append the resource line described above to the end of the current save file. If no save file has been set the Set Save File dialog box will be popped up to prompt the user for a filename.
This button attempts to perform a XtSetValues call on all widgets that match the resource line described above. The value specified is applied directly to all matching widgets. This behavior is an attempt to give a dynamic feel to the resource editor. Since this feature allows users to put an application in states it may not be willing to handle, a hook has been provided to allow specific applications to block these SetValues requests (see Blocking Editres Requests below).

Unfortunately due to design constraints imposed on the widgets by the X Toolkit and the Resource Manager, trying to coerce an inherently static system into dynamic behavior can cause strange results. There is no guarantee that the results of an apply will be the same as what will happen when you save the value and restart the application. This functionality is provided to try to give you a rough feel for what your changes will accomplish, and the results obtained should be considered suspect at best. Having said that, this is one of the ncatest features of editres, and I strongly suggest that you play with it, and see what it can do.

Save and Apply

This button combines the Save and Apply actions described above into one button.
Popdown Resource Box
This button will remove the resource box from the display.
The editres protocol has been built into the Athena Widget set. This allows all applications that are linked against Xaw to be able to speak to the resource editor. While this provides great flexibility, and is a useful tool, it can quite easily be abused. It is therefore possible for any Xaw application to specify a value for the editresBlock resource described below, to keep editres from divulging information about its internals, or to disable the SetValues part of the protocol.
editresBlock (Class EditresBlock)
Specifies which type of blocking this application wishes to impose on the editres protocol.
The accepted values are:

all Block all requests.
setValues Block all SetValues requests. As this is the only editres request that actually modifies the application, this is in effect stating that the application is read-only.
none Allow all editres requests.
Remember that these resources are set on any Xaw application, not editres. They allow individual applications to keep all or some of the requests editres makes from ever succeeding. Of course, editres is also an Xaw application, so it may also be viewed and modified by editres (rather recursive, I know), these commands can be blocked by setting the editresBlock resource on editres itself.


For editres the available application resources are:
numFlashes (Class NumFlashes)
Specifies the number of times the widgets in the application will be flashed when the Show Active Widgets command in invoked.

flashTime (Class FlashTime)
Amount of time between the flashes described above.

flashColor (Class flashColor)
Specifies the color used to flash application widgets. A bright color should be used that will immediately draw your attention to the area being flashed, such as red or yellow.

saveResourcesFile (Class SaveResourcesFile)
This is the file the resource line will be append to when the Save button activated in the resource box.

In order to specify resources, it is useful to know the hierarchy of the widgets which compose editres. In the notation below, indentation indicates hierarchical structure. The widget class name is given first, followed by the widget instance name.

Editres editres
Paned paned
Box box
MenuButton commands
SimpleMenu menu
SmeBSB sendTree
SmeBSB refreshTree
SmeBSB dumpTreeToFile
SmeLine line
SmeBSB getResourceList
SmeLine line
SmeBSB quit
MenuButton treeCommands
SimpleMenu menu
SmeBSB showClientWidget
SmeBSB selectAll
SmeBSB unselectAll
SmeBSB invertAll
SmeLine line
SmeBSB selectChildren
SmeBSB selectParent
SmeBSB selectDescendants
SmeBSB selectAncestors
SmeLine line
SmeBSB showWidgetNames
SmeBSB showClassNames
SmeBSB showWidgetIDs
SmeBSB showWidgetWindows
SmeLine line
SmeBSB flashActiveWidgets
Paned hPane
Panner panner
Label uscrMessage
Crip grip
Porthole porthole
Tree tree
Toggle < name of widget in application>
TransientShell resourceBox
Paned pane
Label resourceLabel
Form namesAndClasses
Toggle dot
Toggle star
Toggle any
Toggle name
Toggle class
Label namesLabel
List namesList
Label constraintLabel
List constraintList
Form valueForm
Label valueLabel
Text valueText
Box commandBox
Command setFile
Command save
Command apply
Command saveAndApply
Command cancel
Grip grip
Grip grip


to get the default host and display number.

to get the name of a resource file that overrides the global resources stored in the RESOURCE_MANAGER property.

/usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/Editres - specifies required resources

X(1), xrdb(1), Athena Widget Set - C Language Interface

This is a prototype, there are lots of nifty features I would love to add, but I hope this will give you some ideas about what a resource editor can do.

Chris D. Peterson, formerly MIT X Consortium

listres - list resources in widgets

listres [-option...]

The listres program generates a list of a widget's resource database. The class in which each resource is first defined, the instance and class name, and the type of each resource is listed. If no specific widgets or the -all switch are given, a two-column list of widget names and their class hierarchies is printed.

Listres accepts all of the standard toolkit command line options along with those listed below:
- all
This option indicates that listres should print information for all known widgets and objects.
- nosuper
This option indicates that resources that are inherited from a superclass should not be listed.
This is useful for determining which resources are new to a subclass.
- variable
This option indicates that widgets should be identified by the names of the class record variables rather than the class name given in the variable. This is useful for distinguishing subclasses that have the same class name as their superclasses.
- top name
This option specifies the name of the widget to be treated as the top of the hierarchy. Case is not significant, and the name may match either the class variable name or the class name. The default is "core".
- format printf- string
This option specifies the printf-style format string to be used to print out the name, instance, class, and type of each resource.
To be written.

X(1), xrdb(1), appropriate widget documents

On operating systems that do not support dynamic linking of run-time routines, this program must have all of its known widgets compiled in. The sources provide several tools for automating this process for various widget sets.

Copyright 1989 X Consortium
See X(1) for a full statement of rights and permissions.

Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium

mkfontdir, fonts.dir, fonts.scale, fonts.alias - create an index of X font files in a directory

mkfontdir [directory-name ... ]

For each directory argument, mkfontdir reads all of the font files in the directory searching for properties named "FONT", or (failing that) the name of the file stripped of its suffix. These are converted to lower case and used as font names, and, along with the name of the font file, are written out to the file "fonts.dir" in the directory. The X server and font server use "fonts.dir" to find font files.

The kinds of font files read by mkfontdir depend on configuration parameters, but typically include PCF (suffix ".pcf"), SNF (suffix ".snf") and BDF (suffix ".bdf"). If a font exists in multiple formats, mkfontdir will first choose PCF, then SNF and finally BDF.

The first line of fonts.dir gives the number of fonts in the file. The remaining lines list the fonts themselves, one per line, in two fields. First is the name of the font file, followed by a space and the name of the font.

Because scalable font files do not usually include the X font name, the file "fonts.scale" can be used to name the scalable fonts in the directory. The fonts listed in it are copied to fonts.dir by mkfontdir. "fonts.scale" has the same format as the "fonts.dir" file.

The file "fonts.alias", which can be put in any directory of the font-path, is used to map new names to existing fonts, and should be edited by hand. The format is two white-space separated columns, the first containing aliases and the second containing font-name patterns. Lines beginning with "!" are comment lines and are ignored.

If neither the alias nor the value specifies the size fields of the font name, this is a scalable alias. A font name of any size that matches this alias will be mapped to the same size of the font that the alias resolves to.

When a font alias is used, the name it references is searched for in the normal manner, looking through each font directory in turn. This means that the aliases need not mention fonts in the same directory as the alias file.

To embed white space in either name, simply enclose it in double-quote marks; to embed double-quote marks (or any other character), precede them with back-slash:

"magic-alias with spaces" "" "fontname" with quotes"

regular-alias fixed

If the string "FILE_NAMES_ALIASES" stands alone on a line, each file-name in the directory (stripped of its suffix) will be used as an alias for that font.

List of fonts in the directory and the files they are stored in. Created by mkfontdir. Read by the X server and font server each time the font path is set (see xset(1)).
List of scalable fonts in the directory. Contents are copied to fonts.dir by mkfontdir.
List of font name aliases. Read by the X server and font server each time the font path is set (see xset(1)).
X(1), Xserver(1), xfs(1), xset(1)

oclock - round X clock

oclock [- option ... ]

Oclock simply displays the current time on an analog display.

- fg color
choose a different color for the both hands and the jewel of the clock

- bg color
choose a different color for the background.

- jewel color
choose a different color for the jewel on the clock.

- minute color
choose a different color for the minute hand of the clock.
- hour color
choose a different color for the hour hand of the clock.
- backing { WhenMapped Always NotUseful }
selects an appropriate level of backing store.
- geometry geometry
define the initial window geometry; see X(1).
- display display
specify the display to use; see X(1).
- bd color
choose a different color for the window border.
- bw width
choose a different width for the window border. As the Clock widget changes its border around quite a bit, this is most usefully set to zero.
- shape
causes the clock to use the Shape extension to create an oval window. This is the default unless the shapeWindow resource is set to false.

- noshape
causes the clock to not reshape itself and ancestors to exactly fit the outline of the clock.
- transparent
causes the clock to consist only of the jewel, the hands, and the border.

If you would like your clock to be viewable in color, include the following in the # ifdef COLOR section you read with xrdb:
*customization: -color

This will cause oclock to pick up the colors in the app-defaults color customization file: < XRoot> /lib/X 11/app-defaults/Clock-color. Below are the default colors:

Clock*Background: grey
Clock*BorderColor: light blue
Clock*hour: yellow
Clock*jewel: yellow
Clock*minute: yellow

X(1), X Toolkit documentation

Keith Packard, MIT X Consortium

resize - set TERMCAP and terminal settings to current xterm window size

resize [ -u | -c ] [ -s [ row col ] ]

Resize prints a shell command for setting the TERM and TERMCAP environment variables to indicate the current size of xterm window from which the command is run. For this output to take effect, resize must either be evaluated as part of the command line (usually done with a shell alias or function) or else redirected to a file which can then be read in. From the C shell (usually known as /bin/csh), the following alias could be defined in the user's .cshrc:


% alias rs 'set noglob; eval 'resize"
After resizing the window, the user would type:
% rs
Users of versions of the Bourne shell (usually known as /bin/sh) that don't have command functions will need to send the output to a temporary file and the read it back in with the ." command:
$ resize > /tmp/out
$ . /tmp/out

The following options may be used with resize:
-u This option indicates that Bourne shell commands should be generated even if the user's current shell isn't /bin/sh.
-c This option indicates that C shell commands should be generated even if the user's current shell isn't /bin/csh.
-s [rows columns] This option indicates that Sun console escape sequences will be used instead of the special xterm escape code. If rows and columns are given, resize will ask the xterm to resize itself. However, the window manager may choose to disallow the change.
/etc/termcap for the base termcap entry to modify.
~/.cshrc user's alias for the command.
csh(1), tset(1), xterm(1)

Mark Vandevoorde (MIT-Athena), Edward Moy (Berkeley)
Copyright (c) 1984, 1985 by X Consortium
See X(1) for a complete copyright notice.

The - u or - c must appear to the left of - s if both are specified.

sessreg - manage utmp/wtmp entries for non-init clients

sessreg [-w wtmp-file] [-u utmp-file] [-l line-name] [-h host-name] [-s slot-number] [-x Xservers-file] [-t ttysfile] [-a] [-d] user-name

Sessreg is a simple program for managing utmp/wtmp entries for xdm sessions.

System V has a better interface to /etc/utmp than BSD; it dynamically allocates entries in the file, instead of writing them at fixed positions indexed by position in /etc/ttys.

To manage BSD-style utmp files, sessreg has two strategies. In conjunction with xdm, the -x option counts the number of lines in /etc/ttys and then adds to that the number of the line in the Xservers file which specifies the display. The display name must be specified as the "line-name" using the -l option. This sum is used as the "slot-number" in /etc/utmp that this entry will be written at. In the more general case, the -s option specifies the slot-number directly. If for some strange reason your system uses a file other that /etc/ttys to manage init, the -t option can direct sessreg to look elsewhere for a count of terminal sessions.

Conversely, System V managers will not ever need to use these options (-x, -s and -t). To make the program easier to document and explain, sessreg accepts the BSD-specific flags in the System V environment and ignores them.

BSD also has a host-name field in the utmp file which doesn't exist in System V. This option is also ignored by the System V version of sessreg.

In Xstartup, place a call like:
sessreg -a -l $DISPLAY -x /usr/X11R6/lib/xdm/Xservers $USER
and in Xreset:
sessreg -d -l $DISPLAY -x /usr/X11R6/lib/xdm/Xservers $USER

-w wtmp-file

This specifies an alternate wtmp file, instead of /usr/adm/wtmp for BSD or /etc/wtmp for sysV. The special name "none" disables writing records to /usr/adm/wtmp.
-u utmp-file
This specifies an alternate utmp file, instead of "/etc/utmp". The special name "none" disables writing records to /etc/utmp.
-l line-name
This describes the "line" name of the entry. For terminal sessions, this is the final pathname segment of the terminal device filename (e.g. ttyd0). For X sessions, it should probably be the local display name given to the users session (e.g. :0). If none is specified, the terminal name will be determined with ttyname(3) and stripped of leading components.
-h host-name
This is set for BSD hosts to indicate that the session was initiated from a remote host. In typical xdm usage, this options is not used.
-s slot-number
Each potential session has a unique slot number in BSD systems, most are identified by the position of the line-name in the /etc/ttys file. This option overrides the default position determined with ttyslot(3). This option is inappropriate for use with xdm, the -x option is more useful.
-x Xservers-file
As X sessions are one-per-display, and each display is entered in this file, this options sets the slot-number to be the number of lines in the ttys-file plus the index into this file that the linename is found.
-t ttys-file
This specifies an alternate file which the -x option will use to count the number of terminal sessions on a host.
This session should be added to utmp/wtmp.
This session should be deleted from utmp/wtmp. One of -a/-d must be specified.

Keith Packard, MIT X Consortium

showsnf - print contents of an SNF file

showsnf [-v][-g][-m][-M][-l][-L][-p# ][-u# ]

The showsnf utility displays the contents of font files in the Server Natural Format produced by bsdtosnf. It is usually only to verify that a font file hasn't been corrupted or to convert the individual glyphs into arrays of characters for proofreading or for conversion to some other format.

This option indicates that character bearings and sizes should be printed.
This option indicates that character glyph bitmaps should be printed.
This option indicates that the bit order of the font is MSBFirst (most significant bit first).
This option indicates that the bit order of the font is LSBFirst (least significant bit first).
This option indicates that the byte order of the font is MSBFirst (most significant byte first).
This option indicates that the byte order of the font is LSBFirst (least significant byte first).
This option specifies the glyph padding of the font (# is a number).
This option specifies the scanline unit of the font (# is a number).
X(1), Xserver(1), bdftosnf(1)

There is no way to just print out a single glyph.

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