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Chapter 12


X Session Management Library

Version 1.0

X Consortium Standard

X Version 11, Release 6

Ralph Mor

X Consortium


Copyright 1993, 1994 X Consortium



Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies Of the Soft ware, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE X CONSORTIUM BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Except as contained in this notice, the name of the X Consortium shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written authorization from the X Consortium.


X Window System is a trademark of X Consortium, Inc.

Acknowledgments

Thanks to the following people for their participation in the X Session Management design: Jordan Brown, Ellis Cohen, Donna Converse, Stephen Gildea, Vania Joloboff, Stuart Marks, Bob Scheifler, Ralph Swick, and Mike Wexler.

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Overview of Session Management

The purpose of the X Session Management Protocol (XSMP) is to provide a uniform mechanism for users to save and restore their sessions. A session is a group of clients, each of which has a particular state. The session is controlled by a network service called the session manager. The session manager issues commands to its clients on behalf of the user. These commands may cause clients to save their state or to terminate. It is expected that the client will save its state in such a way that the client can be restarted at a later time and resume its operation as if it had never been terminated. A client's state might include information about the file currently being edited, the current position of the insertion point within the file, or the start of an uncommitted transaction. The means by which clients are restarted is unspecified by this protocol.

For purposes of this protocol, a client of the session manager is defined as a connection to the session manager. A client is typically, though not necessarily, a process running an application program connected to an X display. However, a client may be connected to more than one X display or not be connected to any X displays at all.


12.1 THE SESSION MANAGEMENT LIBRARY

The Session Management Library (SMlib) is a low level "C" language interface to XSMP. It is expected that higher level toolkits, such as Xt, will hide many of the details of session management from clients. Higher level toolkits might also be developed for session managers to use, but no such effort is currently under way.

SMlib has two parts to it - one set of functions for clients that want to be part of a session, and one set of functions for session managers to call. Some applications will use both sets of functions and act as nested session managers - they will be both a session manager and a client of another session. An example is a mail program that could start a text editor for editing the text of a mail message. The mail program is pan of a regular session, and at the same time, is also acting as a session manager to the editor.

Clients initialize by connecting to the session manager and obtaining a client-ID which uniquely identifies them in the session. The session manager maintains a list of properties for each client in the session. These properties describe the client's environment, and most importantly, describe how the client can be restarted (via an SmRestartCommand). Clients are expected to save their state in such a way as to allow multiple instantiations of themselves to be managed independently. For example, clients may use their client-ID as part of a filename in which to store the state for a particular instantiation. The client-ID should be saved as part of the SmRestartCommand so that the client will retain the same ID after it is restarted.

Once the client initializes itself with the session manager, it must be ready to respond to messages from the session manager. For example, it might be asked to save its state or to terminate. In the case of a shutdown, the session manager might give each client a chance to interact with the user and cancel the shutdown.


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12.2 UNDERSTANDING SMLIB'S DEPENDENCE ON ICE

The X Session Management Protocol is layered on top of the Inter-Client Exchange (ICE) Protocol. The ICE protocol is designed to multiplex several protocols over a single connection. As a result, working with SMlib requires a little knowledge of how the ICE library works.

The ICE library utilizes callbacks to process messages. When a client detects that there is data to read on an ICE connection, it should call the IceProcessMessages function. IceProcessMessages will read the message header and look at the major opcode in order to determine which protocol the message was intended for. The appropriate protocol library will then be triggered to unpack the message and hand it off to the client via a callback.

The main point to be aware of is that an application using SMlib must have some code which detects when there is data to read on an ICE connection. This can be done via a select() call on the file descriptor for the ICE connection, but more typically, XtAppAddInput will be used to register a callback which will invoke IceProcessMessages each time there is data to read on the ICE connection.

To further complicate things, knowing which file descriptors to select() on requires an understanding of how ICE connections are created. On the client side, a call must be made to SmcOpenConnection in order to open a connection with a session manager. SmcOpenConnection will internally make a call into IceOpenConnection which will in turn determine if an ICE connection already exists between the client and session manager. Most likely, a connection will not already exist and a new ICE connection will be created. The main point to be aware of is that on the client side, it is not obvious when ICE connections get created or destroyed, since connections are shared when possible. To deal with this, the ICE library lets the application register watch procedures which will be invoked each time an ICE connection is opened or closed. These watch procedures could be used to add or remove ICE file descriptors from the list of descriptors to select() on.

On the session manager side, things work a bit differently. The session manager has complete control over the creation of ICE connections. The session manager has to first call IceListenForConnections in order to start listening for connections from clients. Once a connection attempt is detected, IceAcceptConnection must be called, and the session manager can simply add the new ICE file descriptor to the list of descriptors to select() on.

Please refer to the Inter-Client Exchange Library document for more details on the library functions related to ICE connections.


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12.3 HEADER FILES AND LIBRARY NAME

Applications (both session managers and clients) should include the header file <X11/SM/SMlib.h> . This header file defines all of the SMlib data structures and function prototypes. SMlib.h includes the header file <X11/SM/SM.h> which defines all of the SMlib constants.

Since SMlib is dependent on ICE, applications should link against SMlib and ICElib by using -lSM -lICE.


12.4 SESSION MANAGEMENT CLIENT (SMC) FUNCTIONS


12.4.1 Connecting to the Session Manager

To open a connection with a session manager, call the SmcOpenConnection function.


SmcConn SmcOpenConnection(network_ids_list,context,xsmp_major_rev,xsmp_minor_rev,
mask, callbacks, previous_id, client_id_ret, error_length, error_string_ret)
char *network_ids_list;
SmPointer context;
int xsmp_major_rev;
int xsmp_minor_rev;
unsigned long mask;
SmcCallbacks *callbacks;
char *previous_id;
char **client_id_ret;
int error_length;
char *error_string_ret;
network_ids_list Specifies the network ID(s) of the session manager.
context A pointer to an opaque object, or NULL. Used to determine if an ICE connection can be shared (see below).
xsmp_major_rev The highest major version of the XSMP the application supports.
xsmp_minor_rev The highest minor version of the XSMP the application supports (for the specified xsmp_major_rev).
mask A mask indicating which callbacks to register.
callbacks The callbacks to register. These callbacks are used to respond to messages from the session manager.
previous_id The client ID from the previous session.
client_id_ret The client ID for the current session is returned.
error_length Length of the error_string_ret argument passed in.
error_string_ret Returns a null terminated error message, if any. error_string_ret points to user supplied memory. No more than error_length bytes are used.


network_ids_list is a null terminated string containing a list of network IDs for the session manager, separated by commas. If network_ids_list is NULL, the value of the SESSION_MANAGER environment variable will be used. Each network ID has the form...

tcp/<hostname>:<portnumber> or
decnet/<hostname>::<objname> or
local<hostname>:<path>

An attempt will be made to use the first network ID. If that fails, an attempt will be made using the second network ID, and so on.

After the connection is established, SmcOpenConnection registers the client with the session manager. If the client is being restarted from a previous session, previous_id should contain a null terminated string representing the client ID from the previous session. If the client is first joining the session, previous_id should be set to NULL. If previous_id is specified, but is determined to be invalid by the session manager, SMlib will re-register the client with previous_id set to NULL.

If SmcOpenConnection succeeds, the function returns an opaque connection pointer of type SmcConn and the client_id_ret argument contains the client ID to be used for this session. client_id_ret should be freed with a call to free() when no longer needed. On failure, SmcOpenConnection returns NULL and the reason for failure is returned in error_string_ret.

Note that SMlib uses the ICE protocol to establish a Connection with the session manager. If an ICE connection already exists between the client and session manager, it might be possible for the same ICE connection to be used for session management.

The context argument indicates how willing the client is to share the ICE connection with other protocols. If context is NULL, then the caller is always willing to share the connection. If context is not NULL, then the caller is not willing to use a previously opened ICE connection that has a different non-NULL context associated with it.

As discussed in the section titled Understanding SMlib's Dependence on ICE, the client will have to keep track of when ICE connections are created or destroyed (using IceAddConnectionWatch and IceRemoveConnectionWatch), and will have to call IceProcessMessages each time select() shows that there is data to read on an ICE connection. Please refer to the Inter-Client Exchange Library document for more details.


callbacks contains a set of callbacks used to respond to session manager events. The mask argument specifies which callbacks are set. All of the callbacks specified in this version of SMlib are mandatory. The mask argument is necessary in order to maintain backwards compatibility in future versions of the library.

The following values may be ORed together to obtain a mask value:

SmcSaveYourselfProcMask
SmcDieProcMask
SmcSaveCompleteProcMask
SmcShutdownCancelledProcMask


For each callback, the client can register a pointer to client data. When SMlib invokes the callback, it will pass the client data pointer.


typedef struct {
struct {
SmcSaveYourselfProc callback;
SmPointer client_data;
} save_yourself;
struct {
SmcDieProc callback;
SmPointer client_data;
} die;
struct {
SmcSaveCompleteProc callback;
SmPointer client_data;
} save_complete;
struct {
SmcShutdownCancelledProc callback;
SmPointer client_data;
} shutdown_cancelled;
} SmcCallbacks;


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12.4.1.1 The Save Yourself Callback

The Save Yourself callback is of type SmcSaveYourselfProc.


typedef void (*SmcSaveYourselfProc)();

void SaveYourselfProc(smc_conn, client_data, save_type, shutdown, interact_style, fast)
SmcConn smc_conn;
SmPointer client_data;
int save_type;
Bool shutdown;
int interact_style;
Bool fast;


smc_conn The session management connection object.
client_data Client data specified when the callback was registered.
save_type Specifies the type of information that should be saved.
shutdown Specifies if a shutdown is taking place.
interact_style The type of interaction allowed with the user.
fast If True, the client should save its state as quickly as possible.


The session manager sends a Save Yourself message to a client either to checkpoint it or just before termination so that it can save its state. The client responds with zero or more calls to SmcSetProperties to update the properties indicating how to restart the client. When all the properties have been set, the client calls SmcSaveYourselfDone.

If interact_style is SmInteractStyleNone, the client must not interact with the user while saving state. If interact_style is SmInteractStyleErrors, the client may interact with the user only if an error condition arises. If interact_style is SmInteractStyleAny, then the client may interact with the user for any purpose. Since only one client can interact with the user at a time, the client must call SmcInteractRequest and wail for an Interact message from the session manager. When the client is done interacting with the user, it calls SmcInteractDone. The client may only call SmcInteractRequest after it receives a Save Yourself message and before it calls SmcSaveYourselfDone.

If save_type is SmSaveLocal, the client must update the properties to reflect its current slate. Specifically, it should save enough information to restore the slate as seen by the user of this client. It. should not affect the state as seen by other users. If save_type is SmSaveGlobal the user wants the client to commit all of its data to permanent, globally accessible storage. If save_type is SmSaveBoth, the client should do both of these (it should first commit the data to permanent storage before updating its properties).

Some examples:

If a word processor were sent a Save Yourself with a type of SmSaveLocal, it could create a temporary file that included the current contents of the file, the location of the cursor, and other aspects of the current editing session. It would then update its SmRestartCommand property with enough information to find this temporary file.
If a word processor were sent a Save Yourself with a type of SmSaveGlobal, it would simply save the currently edited file.
If a word processor were sent a Save Yourself with a type of SmSaveBoth, it would first save the currently edited file. It would then create a temporary file with information such as the current position of the cursor and what file is being edited. Finally, it would update its SmRestartCommand property with enough information to find the temporary file.

The shutdown parameter specifies whether the system is being shut down. The interaction is different depending on whether or not shutdown is set. If not shutting down, the client should save its state and wait for a Save Complete message. If shutting down, the client must save state and then prevent interaction until it receives either a Die or a Shutdown Cancelled.

The fast parameter specifies that the client should save its state as quickly as possible. For example, if the session manager knows that power is about to fail, it would set fast to True.


12.4.1.2 The Die Callback

The Die callback is of type SmcDieProc.


typedef void (*SmcDieProc)();

void DieProc(smc_conn, client_data)
SmcConn smc_conn;
SmPointer client_data;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
client_data Client data specified when the callback was registered.


The session manager sends a Die message to a client when it wants it to die. The client should respond by calling SmcCloseConnection. A session manager that behaves properly will send a Save Yourself message before the Die message.


12.4.1.3 The Save Complete Callback

The Save Complete callback is of type SmcSaveCompleteProc.


typedef void (*SmcSaveCompleteProc)();

void SaveCompleteProc (smc_conn, client_data)
SmcConn smc_conn;
SmPointer client_data;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
client_data Client data specified when the callback was registered.


When the session manager is done with a checkpoint, it will send each of the clients a Save Complete message. The client is then free to change its state.


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12.4.1.4 The Shutdown Cancelled Callback

The Shutdown Cancelled callback is of type SmcShutdownCancelledProc.


typedef void (*SmcShutdownCancelledProc)();

voidShutdownCancelledProc(smc_conn,client_data)
SmcConn smc_conn;
SmPointer client_data;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
client_data Client data specified when the callback was registered.


The session manager sends a Shutdown Cancelled message when the user cancelled the shutdown during an interaction (see the section titled Interacting With the User). The client can now continue as if the shutdown had never happened. If the client has not called SmcSaveYourselfDone yet, it can either abort the save and then call SmcSaveYourselfDone with the success argument set to False, or it can continue with the save and then call SmcSaveYourselfDone with the success argument set to reflect the outcome of the save.


12.4.2 Closing the Connection

To close a connection with a session manager, call the SmcCloseConnection function.

SmcCloseStatus SmcCloseConnection(smc_conn, count, reason_ msgs)
SmcConn smc_conn;
int count;
char **reason_msgs;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
count The number of reason messages.
reason_msgs The reasons for closing the connection.


reason_msgs will most likely be NULL if resignation is expected by the client. Otherwise, it contains a list of null terminated Compound Text strings representing the reason for termination. The session manager should display these reason messages to the user.

Note that SMlib used the ICE protocol to establish a connection with the session manager, and various protocols other than session management may be active on the ICE connection. When SmcCloseConnection is called, the ICE connection will be closed only if all protocols have been shutdown on the connection. Check the ICElib documentation for IceAddConnectionWatch and IceRemoveConnectionWatch to learn how to set up a callback to be invoked each time an ICE connection is opened or closed. Typically this callback adds/removes the ICE file descriptor from the list of active descriptors to select() on (or calls XtAppAddInput / XtRemoveInput).

SmcCloseConnection returns one of the following values:

SmcClosedNow: The ICE connection was closed at this time. The watch procedures were invoked and the connection was freed.
SmcClosedASAP: An IO error had occurred on the connection, but SmcCloseConnection is being called within a nested IceProcessMessages. The watch procedures have been invoked at this time, but the connection will be freed as soon as possible (when the nesting level reaches zero and IceProcessMessages returns a status of IceProcessMessagesConnectionClosed).
SmcConnectionlnUse: The connection was not closed at this time because it is being used by other active protocols.


12.4.3 Modifying callbacks

To modify callbacks set up in SmcOpenConnection, call the SmcModifyCallbacks function.

void SmcModifyCallbacks(smc_conn, mask, callbacks)
SmCConn smc_conn;
unsigned long mask;
SmcCallbacks *callbacks;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
mask A mask indicating which callbacks to modify.
callbacks The new callbacks.


When specifying a value for mask, the following values may be ORed together:

SmcSaveYourselfProcMask
SmcDieProcMask
SmcSaveCompleteProcMask
SmcShutdownCancelledProcMask


12.4.4 Setting, Deleting, and Retrieving Session Management Properties

To set session management properties for this client, call the SmcSetProperties function.

void SmcSetProperties(smc_conn, num_props, props)
SmcConn smc_conn;
int num_props;
SmProp **props;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
num_props The number of properties.
props The list of properties to set.


The properties are specified as an array of property pointers. Previously set property values may be overwritten using the SmcSetProperties function. Note that the session manager is not expected to restore property values when the session is restarted. Because of this, clients should not try to use the session manager as a database for storing application specific state.

For a description of session management properties and the SmProp structure, refer to the section titled Session Management Properties.


To delete properties previously set by the client, call the SmcDeleteProperties function.

void SmcDeleteProperties(smc_conn, num_props, prop_names)
SmcConn smc_conn;
int num_props;
char **prop_names;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
num_props The number of properties.
prop_names The list of properties to delete.


To get properties previously stored by the client, call the SmcGetProperties function.

StatusSmcGetProperties(smc_conn,prop_reply_proc,client_data)
SmcConn smc_conn;
SmcPropReplyProc prop_reply_proc;
SmPOinter client_data;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
prop_reply_proc The callback to be invoked when the properties reply comes back.
client_data This pointer to client data will be passed to the SmcPropReplyProc callback.


The return value of SmcGetProperties is zero for failure, and a positive value for success.

Note that the library does not block until the properties reply comes back. Rather, a callback of type SmcPropReplyProc is invoked when the data is ready.


typedef void (*SmcPropReplyProc)();

void PropReplyProc(smc_conn, client_data, num_props, props)
SmcConn smc_conn;
SmPointer client_data;
int num_props;
SmProp **props;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
client_data Client data specified when the callback was registered.
num_props The number of properties returned.
props The list of properties returned.


In order to free each property, call the SmFreeProperty function (see the section titled Freeing Data). Free the actual array of pointers with a call to free().


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12.4.5 Interacting With the User

After receiving a Save Yourself message with an interact_style of SmInTeractStyleErrors or SmInteractStyleAny, the client may choose to interact with the user. Since only one client can interact with the user at a time, the client must call SmcInteractRequest and wail for an Interact message from the session manager.

Status SmcInteractRequest(smc_conn,dialog_type,interact_proc,client_data)
SmcConn smc_conn;
int dialog_type;
SmcInteractProc interact_proc;
SmPointer client_data;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
dialog_type The type of dialog the client wishes to present to the user.
interact_proc The callback to be invoked when the Interact message arrives from the session manager.
client_data This pointer to client data will be passed to the SmcInteractProc callback when the Interact message arrives.


The return value of SmcInteractRequest is zero for failure, and a positive value for success.

The dialog_type argument specifies either SmDialogError indicating that the client wants to start an error dialog, or SmDislogNormal, meaning that the client wishes to start a non-error dialog.

Note that if a shutdown is in progress, the user may have the option of cancelling the shutdown. If the shutdown is cancelled, the clients that have not interacted yet with the user will receive a Shutdown Cancelled message instead of the Interact message.

The SmcInteractProc callback will be invoked when the Interact message arrives from the session manager.


typedef void (*SmcInteractProc)();

void InteractProc(smc_conn, client_data)
SmcConn smc_conn;
SmPointer client_data;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
client_data Client data specified when the callback was registered.


After interacting with the user (in response to an Interact message), call the SmcInteractDone function.

void SmcInteractDone(smc_conn, cancel_shutdown)
SmcConn smc_conn;
Bool cancel_shutdown;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
cancel_shutdown If True, indicates that the user requests that the entire shutdown be cancelled.


cancel_shutdown may only be True if the corresponding Save Yourself specified True for shutdown and SmInteractStyleErrors or SmInteractStyleAny for the interact_style.


12.4.6 Requesting a Save Yourself

To request a checkpoint from the session manager, call the SmcRequestSaveYourself function.

void SmcRequestSaveYourself(smc_conn, save_type, shutdown, interact_style, fast, global)
SmcConn smc _conn;
int save_type;
Bool shutdown;
int interact_style;
Bool fast;
Bool global;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
save_type Specifies the type of information that should be saved.
shutdown Specifies if a shutdown is taking place.
interact_style The type of interaction allowed with the user.
fast If True, the client should save its state as quickly as possible.
global Controls who gets the Save Yourself.


The save_type, shutdown, interact_style, and fast parameters are discussed in the previous section tilled The Save Yourself Callback.

If global is set to True, then the resulting Save Yourself should be sent to all clients in the session. For example, a vendor of a UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) might include an SM client that would monitor the status of the UPS and generate a fast shutdown if the power is about to be lost.

If global is set to False, then the Save Yourself should only be sent to the client which requested the Save Yourself.


12.4.7 Requesting a Save Yourself Phase 2

In response to a Save Yourself, the client may request to be informed when all the other clients are quiescent so it can save their state. To do so, the SmcRequestSaveYourselfPhase2 function should be called.

Status SmcRequestSaveYourselfPhase2(smc_conn, save_yourself_phase2_proc, client_data)
SmcConn smc_conn;
SmcSaveYowselfPhase2Proc save_yourself_phase2_proc;
SmPointer client_data;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
save_yourself_phase2_proc The callback to be invoked when the Save Yourself Phase 2 message arrives from the session manager.
client_data This pointer to client data will be passed to the SmcSaveYourselfPhase2Proc callback when the Save Yourself Phase 2 message arrives.


The return value of SmcRequestSaveYourselfPhase2 is zero for failure, and a positive value for success.

This request is needed by clients that manage other clients (e.g. window managers, workspace managers, etc.). The manager must make sure that all of the clients hat are being managed are in an idle state, so that their state can be saved.


12.4.8 Completing a Save Yourself

After saving state in response to a Save Yourself message, call the SmcSaveYourselfDone function.

void SmcSaveYourselfDone(smc_conn, success)
SmcConn smc_conn;
Bool success;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
success If True, the Save Yourself operation was completed successfully.


Before calling SmcSaveYourselfDone, the client must have set each required property al least once since the client registered with the session manager.


12.4.9 Informational Functions

int SmcProtocolVersion(smc_conn)
SmcConn smc_conn;


Returns the major version of the session management protocol associated with this session.
int SmcProtocolRevision(smc_conn)
SmcConn smc_conn;


Returns the minor version of the session management protocol associated with this session.


char *SmcVendor(smc_conn)
SmcConn smc_conn;


Returns a string that provides some identification of the owner of the session manager. The string should be freed with a call to free().


char *SmcRelease(smc_conn)
SmcConn smc_conn;


Returns a string that provides the release number of the session manager. The string should be freed with a call to free().


char *SmcClientID(smc_conn)
SmcConn smc_conn;

Returns a null terminated string for the client Id associated with this connection. This information was also returned in SmcOpenConnection (it is provided here for convenience).

Call free() on this pointer when the client Id is no longer needed.

IceConn SmcGetIceConnection(smc_conn)
SmcConn Smc_conn;


Returns the ICE connection object associated with this session management connection object. The ICE connection object can be used to get some additional information about the connection. Some of the more useful functions which can be used on the IceConn are IceConnectionNumber, IceConnectionString, IceLastSentSequenceNumber, IceLastReceivedSequenceNumber, and IcePing. Check the ICElib documentation for more details on these functions.


12.4.10 Error Handling

If the client receives an unexpected protocol error from the session manager, an error handler is invoked by SMlib. A default error handler exists which simply prints the error message to stderr and exits if the severity of the error is fatal. The client can change this error handler by calling the SmcSetErrorHandler function.

SmcErrorHandler SmcSetErrorHandler(handler)
SmcErrorHandler handler;
handler The error handler. Pass NULL to restore the default handler.

SmcSetErrorHandler returns the previous error handler.

The SmcErrorHandler has the following type:


typedef void (*SmcErrorHandler)();

void ErrorHandler(smc_conn, swap, offending_minor_opcode, offending_sequence_num, error_class, severity, values)
SmcConn smc_conn;
Bool swap;
int offending_minor_opcode;
unsigned long offending_sequence_num;
int error_class;
int severity;
IcePointer values;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
swap A flag which indicates if the values need byte swapping.
Offending_minor_opcode The minor opcode of the offending message.
Offending_sequence_num The sequence number of the offending message.
error_class The error class of the offending message.
severity IceCanContinue, IceFatalToProtocol, or IceFatalToConnection.
values Any additional error values specific to the minor opcode and class.


Note that this error handler is invoked for protocol related errors. To install an error handler to be invoked when an IO error occurs, use the IceSetIOErrorHandler function described in the Inter-Client Exchange Library document.


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12.5 SESSION MANAGEMENT SERVER (SMC) FUNCTIONS


12.5.1 Initializing the Library

SmsInitialize is the first SMlib function that should be called by a session manager. It provides information about the session manager, and registers a callback which will be invoked each time a new client connects to the session manager.

Status SmsInitialize(vendor, release, new_client_proc, manager_data, host_based_auth_proc, error_length, error_string_ret)
char *vendor;
char *release;
SmsNewClientProc new_client_proc;
SmPointer manager_data;
IceHostBasedAuthProc host_based_auth_proc;
int error_length;
char *error_string_ret;
vendor A string specifying the session manager vendor.
release A string specifying the session manager release number.
new_client_proc Callback to be invoked each time a new client connects to the session manager.
manager_data When the SmsNewClientProc callback is invoked, this pointer to manager data will be passed.
host_based_auth_proc Host based authentication callback.
error_length Length of the error_string_ret argument passed in.
error_string_ret Returns a null terminated error message, if any. error_string_ret points to user supplied memory. No more than error_length bytes are used.


After the SmsInitialize function is called, the session manager should call the IceListenForConnections function to listen for new connections. Afterwards, each time a client connects, the session manager should call IceAcceptConnection.

Refer to the section of this document titled Authentication of Clients for more details on authentication (including host based authentication). Also refer to the Inter-Client Exchange Library document for further details on listening for and accepting ICE connections.

Each time a new client connects to the session manager, the SmsNewClientProc callback is invoked. The session manager obtains a new opaque connection object which it should use for all future interaction with the client. Al this time, the session manager must also register a set of callbacks to respond to the different messages that the client might send.


typedef Status (*SmsNewClientProc)();

Status NewClientProc(sms_conn,manager_data,mask_ret,callbacks_ret,failure_reason_ret)
SmsConn sms_conn;
SmPointer manager_data;
unsigned long *mask_ret;
SmsCallbacks *callbacks_ret;
char **failure_reason_ret;
sms_conn A new opaque connection object.
manager_data Manager data specified when the callback was registered.
mask_ret On return, indicates which callbacks were set by the session manager.
callbacks_ret On return, contains the callbacks registered by the session manager.
failure_reason_ret Failure reason returned.


If a failure occurs, the SmsNewClientProc should return a zero status, as well as allocate and return a failure reason string in failure_reason_ret. SMlib will be responsible for freeing this memory.

The session manager must register a set of callbacks to respond to client events. The mask_ret argument specifies which callbacks are set. All of the callbacks specified in this version of SMlib are mandatory. The mask_ret argument is necessary in order to maintain backwards compatibility in future versions of the library.

The following values may be ORed together to obtain a mask value:

SmsRegisterClientProcMask
SmslnteractRequestProcMask
SmsInteractDoneProcMask
SmsSaveYourselfRequestProcMask
SmsSaveYourselfP2RequestProcMask
SmsSaveYourselfDoneProcMask
SmsCloseConnectionProcMask
SmsSetPropertiesProcMask
SmsDeletePropertiesProcMask
SmsGetPropertiesProcMask


For each callback, the session manager can register a pointer to manager data specific to that callback. This pointer will be passed to the callback when it is invoked by SMlib.


typedef struct {
struct {
SmsRegisterClientProc callback;
SmPointer manager_data;
} register_client;
struct {
SmsInteractRequestProc callback;
SmPointer manager_data;
} interact_request;
struct {
SmsInteractDoneProc callback;
SmPointer manager_data;
} interact_done;
struct {
SmsSaveYourselfRequestProc callback;
SmPointer manager_data;
} save_yourself_request;
struct {
SmsSaveYourselfPhase2RequestProc callback;
SmPointer manager_data;
} save_yourself_phase2_request;
struct {
SmsSaveYourselfDoneProc callback;
SmPointer manager_data;
} save_yourself_done;
struct {
SmsCloseConnectionProc callback;
SmPointer manager_data;
} close_connection;
struct {
SmsSetPropertiesProc callback;
SmPointer manager_data;
} set_properies;
struct {
SmsDeletePropertiesProc callback;
SmPointer manager_data;
} delete_properties;
struct {
SmsGetPropertiesProc callback;
SmPointer manager_data;
} get_properties;
} SmsCallbacks;


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12.5.1.1 The Register Client Callback

The Register Client callback is the first callback that will be invoked after the client connects to the session manager. Its type is SmsRegisterClientProc.


typedef Status (*SmsRegisterClientProc();

Status RegisterClientProc(sms_conn, manager_data, previous_id)
SmsConn sms_conn;
SmPOinter manager_data;
char*previous id;
sms_conn The session management connection object.
manager_data Manager data specified when the callback was registered.
previous_id The client ID from the previous session.


Before any further interaction takes place with the client, the client must be registered with the session manager.

If the client is being restarted from a previous session, previous_id will contain a null terminated string representing the client ID from the previous session. Call free() on the previous_id pointer when it is no longer needed. If the client is first joining the session, previous_id will be NULL.

If previous_id is invalid, the session manager should not register the client at this time. This callback should return a status of 0, which will cause an error message to be sent to the client. The client should reregister with previous_id set to NULL.

Otherwise, the session manager should register the client with a unique client ID by calling the SmsRegisterClientReply function (to be discussed shortly), and the SmsRegisterClientProc callback should return a status of 1.


12.5.1.2 The Interact Request Callback

The Interact Request callback is of type SmsInteractRequestProc.


typedef void (*SmsInteractRequestProc)();

void InteractRequestProc(sms_conn, manager_data, dialog_type)
SmsConn Sms_conn;
SmPointer manager_data;
int dialog_type;
sms_conn The session management connection object.
manager_data Manager data specified when the callback was registered.
dialog_type The type of dialog the client wishes to present to the user.


When a client receives a Save Yourself message with an interact_style of SmInteractStyleErrors or SmInteractStyleAny, the client may choose to interact with the user. Since only one client can interact with the user at a time, the client must request to interact with the user. The session manager should keep a queue of all clients wishing to interact. It should send an Interact message to one client al a Lime and wail for an Interact Done message before continuing with the next client.

The dialog_type argument specifies either SmDialogError indicating that the client wants to start an error dialog, or SmDialogNormal, meaning that the client wishes to start a non-error dialog.

If a shutdown is in progress, the user may have the option of cancelling the shutdown. If the shutdown is cancelled (specified in the Interact Done message), the session manager should send a Shutdown Cancelled message to each client that requested to interact.


12.5.1.3 The Interact Done Callback

When the client is done interacting with the user, the SmsInteractDoneProc callback will be invoked.


typedef void (*SmsInteractDoneProc)();

void InteractDoneProc(sms_conn,manager_data,cancel_shutdown)
SmsConn sms_conn;
SmPointer manager_data;
Bool cancel_shutdown;
sms_conn The session management connection object.
manager_data Manager data specified when the callback was registered.
cancel_shutdown Specifies if the user requests that the entire shutdown be cancelled.


Note that the shutdown can be cancelled only if the corresponding Save Yourself specified True for shutdown and SmInteractStyleErrors or SmInteractStyleAny for the interact_style.


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12.5.1.4 The Save Yourself Request Callback

The Save Yourself Request callback is of type SmsSaveYourselfRequestProc.


typedef void (*SmsSaveYourselfRequestProc)();

void SaveYourselfRequestProc(sms_conn, manager_data, save_type, shutdown, interact_style, fast, global)
SmsConn sms_conn;
SmPointer manager_data;
int save_type;
Bool shutdown;
int interact_style;
Bool fast;
Bool global;
sms_conn The session management connection object.
manager_data Manager data specified when the callback was registered.
save_type Specifies the type of information that should be saved.
shutdown Specifies if a shutdown is taking place.
interact_style The type of interaction allowed with the user.
fast If True, the client should save its stale as quickly as possible.
global Controls who gets the Save Yourself.


The Save Yourself Request prompts the session manager to initiate a checkpoint or shutdown. The save_type, shutdown, interact_style, and fast parameters are discussed in the upcoming section tilled Sending a Save Yourself Message,

If global is set to True, then the resulting Save yourself should be sent to all applications. If global is set to False, then the Save Yourself should only be sent to the client which requested the Save Yourself.


12.5.1.5 The Save Yourself Phase 2 Request Callback

The Save Yourself Phase 2 Request callback is of type SmsSaveYourselfPhase2RequestProc.


typedef void(*SmsSaveYourselfPhase2RequestProc)();

void SmsSaveYourselfPhase2RequestProc(sms_conn, manager_data)
SmsConn sms_conn;
SmPointer manager_data;
sms_conn The session management connection object.
manager_data Manager data specified when the callback was registered.


This request is sent by clients that manage other clients (e.g. window managers, workspace managers, etc.). Such managers must make sure that all of the clients that are being managed are in an idle state, so that their state can be saved.


12.5.1.6 The Save Yourself Done Callback

When the client is done saving its state in response to a Save Yourself message, the SmsSaveYourselfDoneProc will be invoked.


typedef void (*SmsSaveYourselfDoneProc)();

void SaveYourselfDoneProc(sms_conn, manager_data, success)
SmsConn sms_conn;
SmPOinter manager_data;
Bool success;
sms_conn The session management connection object.
manager_data Manager data specified when the callback was registered.
success If True, the Save Yourself operation was completed successfully.


Before the Save Yourself Done was sent, the client must have set each required property at least once since it registered with the session manager.


12.5.1.7 The Connection Closed Callback

If the client properly terminates (i.e. it calls SmcCloseConnection), the SmsCloseConnectionProc callback is invoked.


typedef void (*SmsCloseConnectionProc)();

void CloseConnectionProc(sms_conn, manager_data, count, reason_msgs)
SmsConn sms_conn;
SmPointer manager_data;
int count;
char **reason_msgs;
sms_conn The session management connection object.
manager_data Manager data specified when the callback was registered.
count The number of reason messages.
reason_msgs The reasons for closing the connection.


reason_msgs will most likely be NULL and count 0 if resignation is expected by the user. Otherwise, it contains a list of null terminated Compound Text strings representing the reason for termination. The session manager should display these reason messages to the user.

Call SmFreeReasons to free the reason messages. See the section titled Freeing Data.


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12.5.1.8 The Set Properties Callback

When the client sets session management properties, the SmsSetPropertiesProc callback will be invoked.


typedef void (*SmsSetPropertiesProc)();

void SetPropertiesProc (sms_conn, manager_data, num_props, props)
SmsConn sms_conn;
SmPointer manager_data;
int num_props;
SmProp **props;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
manager_data Manager data specified when the callback was registered.
num_props The number of properties.
props The list of properties to set.


The properties are specified as an array of property pointers. For a description of session management properties and the SmProp structure, refer to the section titled Session Management Properties.

Previously set property values may be over-written. Some properties have predefined semantics. The session manager is required to store non-predefined properties.

In order to free each property, call the SmFreeProperty function. See the section titled Freeing Data. Free the actual array of pointers with a call to free().


12.5.1.9. The Delete Properties Callback

When the client deletes session management properties, the SmsDeletePropertiesProc callback will be invoked.


typedef void (*SmsDeletePropertiesProc)();

void DeletePropertiesProc(sms_conn, manager_data, num_props, prop_names)
SmsConn sms_conn;
SmPointer manager_data;
int num_props;
char **prop_names;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
manager_data Manager data specified when the callback was registered.
num_props The number of properties.
prop_names The list of properties to delete.


The properties are specified as an array of strings. For a description of session management properties and the SmProp structure, refer to the section titled Session Management Properties.


12.5.1.10. The Get Properties Callback

The SmsGetPropertiesProc callback is invoked when the client wants to retrieve properties it set.


typedef void(*SmsGetPropertiesProc)();

void GetPropertiesProc(sms_conn, manager_data)
SmsConn sms_conn;
SmPointer manager_data;
smc_conn The session management connection object.
manager_data Manager data specified when the callback was registered.


The session manager should respond by calling SmsReturnProperties. All of the properties set for this client should be returned.


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12.5.2 Registering the Client

In order to register a client (in response to a SmsRegisterClientProc callback), call the SmsRegisterClientReply function.

Status SmsRegisterClientReply(sms_conn, client_id)
SmsConn sms_conn;
char *client_id;
sms_conn The session management connection object.
client_id A null terminated string representing a unique client ID.


The return value of SmsRegisterClientReply is zero for failure, and a positive value for success. Failure will occur if SMlib can not allocate memory to hold a copy of the client ID for it's own internal needs.

If a non-NULL previous_id was specified when the client registered itself, client_id should be identical to previous_id.

Otherwise, client_id should be a unique ID freshly generated by the session manager. In addition, the session manager should send a Save Yourself message with type = Local, shutdown = False, interact-style = None, and fast = False immediately after registering the client.

Note that once a client ID has been assigned to the client, the client keeps this ID indefinitely. If the client is terminated and restarted, it will be reassigned the same ID. It is desirable to be able to pass client IDs around from machine to machine, from user to user, and from session manager to session manager, while retaining the identity of the client. This, combined with the indefinite persistence of client IDs, means that client IDs need to be globally unique.

Call the SmsGenerateClientID function to generate a globally unique client ID.

char *SmsGenerateClientID(sms_conn)
SmsConn sms_conn;
sms_conn The session management connection object.


NULL will be returned if the ID could not be generated. Otherwise, the return value of the function is the client ID. It should be freed with a call to free() when no longer needed.


12.5.3 Sending a Save Yourself Message

In order to send a Save Yourself to a client, call the SmsSaveYourself function.

void SmsSaveYourself(sms_conn,save_type,shutdown,interact_style,fast)
SmsConn sms_conn;
int save_type;
Bool shutdown;
int interact_style;
Bool fast;
sms_conn The session management connection object.
save_type Specifies the type of information that should be saved.
shutdown Specifies if a shutdown is taking place.
interact_style The type of interaction allowed with the user.
fast If True, the client should save its state as quickly as possible.


The session manager sends a Save Yourself message to a client either to checkpoint it or just before termination so that it can save its state. The client responds with zero or more Set Properties messages to update the properties indicating how to restart the client. When all the properties have been set, the client sends a Save YourselfDone message.

If interact_style is SmInteractStyleNone, the client must not interact with the user while saving state. If interact_style is SmInteractStyleErrors, the client may interact with the user only if an error condition arises. If interact_style is SmInteractStyleAny, then the client may interact with the user for any purpose. The client must send an Interact Request message and wait for an Interact message from the session manager before it can interact with the user. When the client is done interacting with the user, it should send an Interact Done message. The Interact Request message can be sent any time after a Save Yourself and before a Save YourselfDone.

If save_type is SmSaveLocal, the client must update the properties to reflect its current state. Specifically, it should save enough information to restore the state as seen by the user of this client. It should not affect the state as seen by other users. If save_type is SmSaveGlobal the user wants the client to commit all of its data to permanent, globally accessible storage. If save_type is SmSaveBoth, the client should do both of these (it should first commit the data to permanent storage before updating its properties).

The shutdown parameter specifies whether the session is being shut down. The interaction is different depending on whether or not shutdown is set. If not shutting down, then the client can save and resume normal operation. If shutting down, the client must save and then must prevent interaction until it receives either a Die or a Shutdown Cancelled, because anything the user does after the save will be lost.

The fast parameter specifies that the client should save its state as quickly as possible. For example, if the session manager knows that power is about to fail, it should set fast to True.


12.5.4 Sending a Save Yourself Phase 2 Message

In order to send a Save Yourself Phase 2 message to a client, call the SmsSaveYourselfPhase2 function.

void SmsSaveYourselfPhase2 (sms_conn)
SmsConn sms_conn;
sms_conn The session management connection object.


The session manager sends this message to a client that has previously sent a Save Yourself Phase 2 Request message. This message informs the client that all other clients are in a fixed state and this client can save state that is associated with other clients.


12.5.5 Sending an Interact Message

To send an Interact message to a client, call the SmsInteract function.

void SmsInteract(sms_conn)
SmsConn sms_conn;
sms_conn The session management connection object.


The Interact message grants the client the privilege of interacting with the user. When the client is done interacting with the user, it must send an Interact Done message to the session manager.


12.5.6 Sending a Save Complete Message

To send a Save Complete message to a client, call the SmsSaveComplete function.

void SmsSaveComplete(sms_conn)
SmsConn sms_conn;
sms_conn The session management connection object.


The session manager sends this message when it is done with a checkpoint. The client is then free to change its state.


12.5.7 Sending a Die Message

To send a Die message to a client, call the SmsDie function.

void SmsDie(sms_conn)
SmsConn sms_conn;
sms_conn The session management connection object.


Before the session manager terminates, it should wait for a Connection Closed message from each client that it sent a Die message to, timing out appropriately.


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12.5.8 Cancelling a Shutdown

To cancel a shutdown, call the SmsShutdownCancelled function.

void SmsShutdownCancelled (sms_conn)
SmsConn sms_conn;
sms_conn The session management connection object.


The client can now continue as if the shutdown had never happened. If the client has not sent a Save Yourself Done yet, it can either abort the save and send a Save Yourself Done with the success field set to False, or it can continue with the save and send a Save Yourself Done with the success field set to reflect the outcome of the save.


12.5.9 Returning Properties

In response to a Get Properties message, the session manager should call the SmsReturnProperties function.

void SmsReturnProperties(sms_conn, num_props, props)
SmsConn sms_conn;
int num_props;
SmProp **props;
sms_conn The session management connection object.
num_props The number of properties.
props The list of properties to return to the client.


The properties are returned as an array of property pointers. For a description of session management properties and the SmProp structure, refer to the section titled Session Management Properties.


12.5.10 Pinging a Client

In order to check that a client is still alive, use the IcePing function provided by the ICE library. In order to do so, the ICE connection must be obtained using the SmsGetIceConnection discussed in a later section.

void IcePing(ice_conn, ping_reply_proc, client_data)
IceConn ice_conn;
IcePingReplyProc ping_reply_proc;
IcePointer client_data;
ice_conn A valid ICE connection object.
ping_reply_proc The callback to invoke when the Ping reply arrives.
client_data This pointer will be passed to the IcePingReplyProc callback.


When the Ping reply is ready (if ever), the IcePingReplyProc callback will be invoked. A session manager should have some sort of timeout period, after which it assumes the client has unexpectedly died.


typedef void (*IcePingReplyProc)();

void PingReplyProc(ice_conn, client_data)
IceConn ice_conn;
IcePointer client_data;
ice_conn The ICE connection object.
client_data The client data specified in the call to IcePing.


12.5.11 Cleaning Up After a Client Disconcerts

When the session manager receives a Connection Closed message or otherwise detects that the client aborted the connection, it should call the SmsCleanUp function in order to free up the connection object.

void SmsCleanUp(sms_conn)
SmsConn sms_conn;
sms_conn The session management connection object.


12.5.12 Informational Functions

int SmsProtocolVersion(sms_conn)
SmsConn sms_conn;


Returns the major version of the session management protocol associated with this session.

int SmsProtocolRevision(sms_conn)
SmsConn sms_conn;


Retums the minor version of the session management protocol associated with this session.

char *SmsClientID(sms_conn)
SmsConn sms_conn;


Returns a null terminated string for the client Id associated with this connection.

Call free() on this pointer when the client Id is no longer needed.

To obtain the host name of a client, call the SmsClientHostName function. This host name will be needed to restart the client.

char *SmsClientHostName (sms_conn)
SmsConn sms_conn;


The string returned is of the form "protocol/hostname", where protocol is one of { tcp, decent, local } .

Call free() on the string returned when it is no longer needed.

IceConn SmsGetIceConnection (sms_conn)
SmsConn sms_conn;


Returns the ICE connection object associated with this session management connection object. The ICE connection object can be used to get some additional information about the connection. Some of the more useful functions which can be used on the IceConn are IceConnectionNumber, and IceLastSequenceNumber. Check the Inter-Client Exchange Library document for more details on these functions.


12.5.13 Error Handling

If the session manager receives an unexpected protocol error from a client, an error handler is invoked by SMlib. A default error handler exists which simply prints the error message (it does not exit). The session manager can change this error handler by calling the SmsSetErrorHandler function.

SmsErrorHandler SmsSetErrorHandler(handler)
SmsErrorHandler handler;
handler The error handler. Pass NULL to restore the default handler.


SmsSetErrorHandler returns the previous error handler.

The SmsErrorHandler has the following type:


typedef void (*SmsErrorHandler)();

void ErrorHandler(sms_conn, swap, offending_minor_opcode, offending_sequence_num, error_class, severity, values)
SmsConn sms_conn;
Bool swap;
int offending_minor_opcode;
unsigned long offending_sequence_num;
int error_class;
int severity;
IcePointer values;
sms_conn The session management connection object.
swap A flag which indicates if the values need byte swapping.
Offending_minor_opcode The minor opcode of the offending message.
offending_sequence_num The sequence number of the offending message.
error_class The error class of the offending message.
severity IceCanContinue, IceFatalToProtocol, or IceFatalToConnection.
values Any additional error values specific to the minor opcode and class.


Note that this error handler is invoked for protocol related errors. To install an error handler to be invoked when an IO error occurs, use the IceSetIOErrorHandler function described in the Inter-Client Exchange Library document.


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12.6. Session Management Properties

Each property is defined by the SmProc structure:

typedef struct {
char *name; /* name of property */
char *type; /* type of property */
int num_vals; /* number of values */
SmPropValue *vals; /* the list of values */
} SmProp;
typedef struct {
int length; /* the length of the value */
SmPointer value; /* the value */
} SmPropValue;

The X Session Management Protocol defines a list of predefined properties, several of which are required to be set by the client. Below is a table which specifies the predefined properties, indicating which ones are required. Each property has a type associated with it.

A type of SmCARD8 indicates that there is a single 1 byte value.

A type of SmARRAY8 indicates that there is a single array of bytes.

A type of SmLISTofARRAY8 indicates that there is a list of array of bytes.

Name Type POSIX Type Required?
SmCloneCommand OS-specific SmLISTofARRAY8 Yes
SmCurrentDirectory OS-specific SmARRAY 8 No
SmDiscardCommand OS-specific SmLISTofARRAY8 No*
SmEnvironment OS-specific SmLISTofARRAY8 No
SmProcessID OS-specific SmARRAY8 No
SmProgram OS-specific SmARRAY8 Yes
SmRestartCommand OS-specific SmLISTofARRAY8 Yes
SmResignCommand OS-specific SmLISTofARRAY8 No
SmRestartStyleHint SmCARD8 SmCARD8 No
SmShutdownCommand OS-specific SmLISTofARRAY8 No
SmUserID SmARRAY8 SmARRAY8 Yes

* Required if any stale is stored in an external repository (e.g., state file).

SmCloneCommand
This is like the SmRestartCommand except it restarts a copy of the application. The only difference is that the application doesn't supply its client id at register time. On POSIX systems this should be of type SmLISTofARRAY8.
SmCurrentDirectory
On POSIX-based systems specifies the value of the current directory that needs to be set up prior to starting the SmProgram and should of type SmARRAY8.
SmDiscardCommand
The discard command contains a command that when delivered to the host that the client is running on (determined from the connection), will cause it to discard any information about the current state. If this command is not specified, the SM will assume that all of the client's stale is encoded in the SmRestartCommand. On POSIX systems the type should be SmLISTofARRAY8.
SmEnvironment
On POSIX based systems, this will be of type SmLISTofARRAY8 where the ARRAY8s alternate between environment variable name and environment variable value.
SmProcessID
This specifies an OS-specific identifier for the process. On POSIX systems this should contain the return value of getpid() turned into a Latin-1 (decimal) string.
SmProgram
The name of the program that is running. On POSIX systems this should be first parameter passed to execute and should be of type SmARRAY8.
SmRestartCommand
The restart command contains a command that when delivered to the host that the client is running on (determined from the connection), will cause the client to restart in its current state. On POSIX-based systems this is of type SmLISTofARRAY8 and each of the elements in the array represents an element in the argv array. This restart command should ensure that the client restarts with the specified clientID.
SmResignCommand
A client that sets the SmRestartStyleHint to SmRestartAnway uses this property to specify a command that undoes the effect of the client and removes any saved state. As an example, consider a user that runs xmodmap. xmodmap registers with the SM, sets SmRestartStyleHint to SmRestartAnyway, and then terminates. In order to allow the SM (at the user's request) to undo this, xmodmap would register a SmResignCommand that undoes the effects of the xmodmap.
SmRestartStyleHint
If the RestartStyleHint property is present, it will contain the style of restarting the client prefers. If this flag isn't specified, SmRestartIfRunning is assumed. The possible values are as follows:
Name Value
SmRestartIfRunning 0
SmRestartAnyway 1
SmRestartImmediately 2
SmRestartNever 3
The SmRestartIfRunning style is used in the usual case. The client should be restarted in the next session if it was running at the end of the current session.
The SmRestartAnyway style is used to tell the SM that the application should be restarted in the next session even if it exits before the current session is terminated. It should be noted that this is only a hint and the SM will follow the policies specified by its users in determining what applications to restart.
A client that uses SmRestartAnyway should also set the SmResignCommand and SmShutdownCommand properties to commands that undo the state of the client after it exits.
The SmRestartImmediately style is like SmRestartAnyway, but in addition, the client is meant to run continuously. If the client exits, the SM should try to restart it in the current session.
SmRestartNever style specifies that the client does not wish to be restarted in the next session.
SmShutdownCommand
This command is executed at shutdown time to clean up after a client that is no longer running but retained its state by setting SmRestartStyleHint to SmRestartAnyway. The client must not remove any saved state as the client is still part of the session. As an example, consider a client that turns on a camera at start up time. This client then exits. At session shutdown, the user wants the camera turned off. This client would set the SmRestartStyleHint to SmRestartAnyway and would register a SmShutdownCommand that would turn off the camera.


SmUserID
Specifies the user's ID. On POSIX-based systems this will contain the user's name (the pw_name field of struct passwd).


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12.7. Freeing Data

To free an individual property, call the SmFreeProperty function.

void SmFreePropeny(prop)
SmProp *prop;
prop The property to free.


To free the reason strings from the SmsCloseConnectionProc callback, call the SmFreeReasons function.

void SmFreeReasons(count, reasons)
int count;
char **reasons;
count The number of reason strings.
reasons The list of reason strings to free.


12.8 Authentication of Clients

As you will recall, the session management protocol is layered on top of ICE. Authentication occurs at two levels in the ICE protocol. The first is when an ICE connection is opened. The second is when a Protocol Setup occurs on an ICE Connection. The authentication methods that are available arc implementation dependent (i.e., dependent on the ICElib and SMlib implementations in use). Refer to the Inter-Client Exchange Library for a general discussion on authentication.


12.9 Working in a Multi-Threaded Environment

To declare that multiple threads in an application will be using SMlib (or any other library layered on lop of ICElib), the IceInitThreads function should be called. This function, along with a general discussion Of multi-threading in the ICE environment, is discussed in the Inter-Client Exchange Library document.

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